“Apps” as a way to get yourself onto someone’s home screen. I think maybe this is what you’re talking about most directly here. Like bookmarks and home pages before them, this doesn’t scale. That is, it works for Google Maps or Yelp but not for, say, airlines if I fly 12 different ones.
Yes. This too will evolve with manufacturers controlling this for preloads. The game is very different in China compared to the West. My guess is things like airlines; may aggregate to apps like Skyscanner, same as hotels no longer really pushing booking on their own website.